The Department

Chairperson: George Urbaniak
Graduate Officer: Cynthia Comacchio
Director of the Tri-University Doctoral Program: Ken McLaughlin (Waterloo)

The Tri-University Graduate Programs - MA and PhD
The Department, together with the departments of History at the University of Guelph and the University of Waterloo, offers a joint program leading to MA and PhD degrees.  Students in the Program register at one of the three universities but may complete course work and use faculty and library resources at all participating universities. Students are governed by the university in which they are registered and their degree is granted by the home university.

The Tri-University Graduate Program uses a self-administered application process in which the onus is on the applicant to collect and submit all required documentation and material.  Only students who are graduates of accredited universities and colleges are eligible for admission. Applications are considered by the Co-ordinating Committee and a recommendation for admission or rejection is forwarded to the Dean of Graduate Studies at the proposed home university.

PhD Fields

Faculty/Research Interests
†Approved PhD Supervisor

Wilfrid Laurier University
†Comacchio, Cynthia, BA (Glendon), MA (York), PhD (Guelph).
†Copp, J. Terry, BA (Sir George Williams), MA (McGill).
†Friesen, Leonard G., BA (Waterloo), MA, PhD (Toronto).
†Gough, Barry M., BEd (UBC), MA (Montana), PhD (London).
†Haberer, Erich, BA, MA (Carleton), PhD (Toronto).
†Lorimer, Douglas A., BA, PhD (UBC).
†Lorimer, Joyce, BA, PhD (Liverpool).
†Monod, David, BA, MA (McGill), PhD (Toronto).
Neylan, Susan, BA, MA (Toronto), Ph.D (UBC).
†Rummel, Erika, BA (Vienna), MA, PhD (Toronto).
†Sibalis, Michael D., BA (McGill), MA (Sir George Williams), PhD (Concordia).
Urbaniak, George, BA, MA, PhD (Toronto).
†Zeller, Suzanne, BA, MA (Windsor), PhD (Toronto).

Adjunct Faculty
Sheinin, David, MA, Ph.D (Connecticut)

University of Guelph
†Andrew, Donna T., BA (CCNY), MSc (London), PhD (Toronto).
†Cassidy, Keith, BA (Loyola), MA, PhD (Toronto).
†Cormack, W., BA (Calgary), MA (Carleton), Ph.D (Queens).
†Crowley, Terry A., BA (Bishop's), MA (Carleton), AM, PhD (Duke).
†Ewan, Elizabeth L., BA (Queen's), PhD (Edinburgh).
†Goddard, Peter J., BA (British Columbia), DPhil (Oxford).
James, Kevin J., BA, MA (McGill), PhD (Edinburgh)
Lambert-Hurley, S., BA (UBC), PhD (London)
†Mahood, Linda L., BA (Saskatchewan), MLitt, PhD (Glasgow).
†Murray, David R., BA (Bishop's), MA (Edinburgh), PhD (Cambridge).
†Reid, Richard M., BA (Carleton), MA, PhD (Toronto).
†Snell, James G., BA (McGill), MA (Western), PhD (Queen's).
†Wilson, Catharine A., BA (Guelph), MA, PhD (Queen's).

University of Waterloo
†Brandt, Gail Cuthbert, BA (Toronto), MA (Carleton), PhD (York).
Eagles, Keith, BA (Cambridge), MA, Ph.D (Washington)
†English, John R., BA (Waterloo), AM, PhD (Harvard).
†Harrigan, Patrick, BA (Detroit), AM, PhD (Michigan).
†Hayes, Geoff, BA, MA (Wilfrid Laurier), PhD (Western).
Hunt, Andrew, BA (Utah), MA (Wisconsin), Ph.D (Utah).
†Johannesen, Stan K., BA (Evangel. College), MA, PhD (Missouri).
†MacDougall, Heather A., BA, MA, PhD (Toronto).
†MacHardy, Karin J., BA, MA (Western), PhD (California at Berkeley).
†McLaughlin, Ken M., BA (Waterloo), MA (Dalhousie), PhD Toronto).
†Mitchinson, Wendy L., BA, MA, PhD (York).
†Packull, Werner O., BA (Guelph), MA (Waterloo), PhD (Queen's).
Stortz, Gerald, BA, MA (Waterloo), Ph.D (Guelph)
†Taylor, Lynne, BA (Western Ontario), MA (London), Ph.D (Michigan).
†Walker, James W., BA (Toronto), MA (Waterloo), PhD (Dalhousie).

Admission Requirements-MA
In order to be admitted to the Master's program, a student must meet the General Admission Requirements of the University. An Honours graduate in a program other than History or General degree graduates may be admitted if evidence justifying admission is offered; however, a program of appropriate preparatory studies (Qualifying Year) will be required of such applicants.
    Language Requirements: Students are expected to be proficient in the language or languages needed in their areas of research.

Program Requirements-MA
A candidate for the Master of Arts degree in History has three alternative streams of study. The first includes a thesis and two full-credit courses (or equivalent) and requires an oral defence of the thesis. The second includes three full-credit courses (or the equivalent) and a cognate research essay growing out of work in these courses. There is an oral defence of this research essay. The third includes four full-credit courses (or the equivalent). To meet the general comprehensive requirement of the University, all courses are organized as seminars and therefore include a significant research and oral presentation component. In each course, students are required to complete at least one substantial research paper and to defend that paper during the seminar. The choice of the stream of study for any individual student will be made through consultation between the student and the Department, but the final decision rests with the Department.

Graduate Courses-MA
Note: Not all courses are offered every year. Contact the Department before accepting an offer of admission to determine whether the courses you wish to complete will be offered during your period of residency.

HI600    1.0
The Nature and Practice of History
A seminar course to acquaint students with important interdisciplinary perspectives that characterize the study of history. The emphasis is upon intensive reading, discussion and critical analysis of representative examples of interpretation and methodology in the historical literature, and their applications to historical research and writing.

HI653    1.0
Contemporary Europe
The study of European integration (the Common Market) and relations between Western Europe and the rest of the world after World War II. (Students who hold credit for HI453 need permission of the Department.)
HI654    1.0
A History of International Relations, 1917-1945
This course focuses on the problems of International Relations in the years between 1917 and 1945. These years were particularly troubled because of the instability caused by the emergence of new ideologies (like Communism and Fascism) which challenged traditional conceptions of international order. The course examines the nature of this challenge and the ways more traditional states of all sizes tried to deal with this destabilization. (Students who hold credit for HI454 need permission of the Department.)
HI656    0.5
Early Modern Europe I
Topics discussed focus on social, institutional and intellectual structures and their transformations. Units of reading include: The Structure of Everyday Life; Structures of Popular Culture; Mental Structures and their Transformations; The Print Revolution and Its Impact. (Students who hold credit for HI456 need permission of the Department.)
HI657    0.5
Early Modern Europe II
Students undertake independent readings in two or three specialized areas of interest and prepare a paper.
Prerequisite: HI656 or permission of the Instructor.
HI658    1.0
Society and Nature in the Victorian Age
A seminar course on selected topics on the development of and the relationship between Victorian social and scientific thought.
HI661    1.0
War and Society in the 20th Century
This course focuses on the impact of the 20th-century wars on the people of the English-speaking world, especially Canada. The course emphasizes issues related to the Second World War but both seminar discussions and research papers include topics related to the First World War and other 20th-century conflicts. Issues to be examined include: medical and psychiatric developments; personnel selection; veterans' re-establishment programs; the impact of war upon families; economic transformations, including labour relations; as well as a range of military questions arising from operational history. (Students who hold credit for HI461 need permission of the Department.)
HI662    1.0
The Second World War
A seminar course on the military, strategic and diplomatic history of the Second World War, including its immediate aftermath.
HI663    1.0
Naval History and International Relations
A seminar in research, reading and analysis of various aspects of naval history and international relations, with particular emphasis on the era 1880 to 1989.
HI667    1.0
Military and Diplomatic History in the 20th Century
A seminar emphasizing research in primary sources on aspects of international conflict in the 20th century. (Students who hold credit for HI467 need permission of the Department.)
HI668    1.0
British Imperial and Commonwealth History
A reading and research course in the historiography of the British Empire and the Commonwealth. (Students who hold credit for HI468 need permission of the Department.)
HI671    1.0
Canadian History-The Historical Literature
A seminar involving critical analysis of the major books which have shaped our view of Canadian history. (Students who hold credit for HI471 need permission of the Department.)
HI672    1.0
Quebec and Ontario in the 19th and 20th Centuries
A seminar on the comparative development of the two central provinces in Canada. Emphasis will be on the social and economic evolution of the two societies. (Students who hold credit for HI472 need permission of the Department.)
HI674    1.0
Nature and Environment in Canadian History
A research seminar which considers important examples of recent interdisciplinary approaches to the historical study of attitudes to nature and perceptions of the environment, with a view to developing useful research applications to environmental topics in Canadian history.
HI675    1.0
Canadian History: Science, Culture and Society
A seminar course emphasizing the impact of scientific and cultural change in the 19th and 20th centuries. (Students who hold credit for HI475 need permission of the Department.)
HI677    1.0
Approaches to Local History
A seminar course to introduce students to the micro-historical method, with a focus on communities and historians' treatment of the problem of social, political and economic changes on a local level.
HI679    1.0
History of Canada to 1900
A seminar course emphasizing topics selected from the eras of contact, the French and British regimes, and Confederation. Themes may include regional, social, economic, political and cultural problems. (Students who hold credit for HI479 need permission of the Department.)
HI680    1.0
Canada in the 20th Century
This seminar focuses on topics of historical importance in the recent history of Canada. (Students who hold credit for HI480 need permission of the Department.)
HI681    1.0
Later Tudor and Early Stuart England
An analysis of the major historiographical trends and debates in English History from 1558 to 1660. (Students who hold credit for HI481 need permission of the Department.)
HI682    1.0
British History
A study of the social and cultural history of industrial Britain. The seminar emphasizes the social and cultural impact of industrialization upon Victorian England. (Students who hold credit for HI482 need permission of the Department.)
HI683    1.0
Slavery, Civil War, and Emancipation-African Americans in the 19th Century
This seminar focuses on important literature relating to 19th-century American slavery, the Civil War (insofar as it involved Blacks) and emancipation. It examines the nature of the peculiar Institution, the manner in which Blacks responded to their enslavement and the events which led to their freedom. It also examines the immediate post-emancipation period and the response of ex-slaves to their new-found freedom. (Students who hold credit for HI483 need permission of the Department.)
HI684    1.0
The United States, 1865-1917 Industrialism and Its Response
An examination of post-Civil War economic expansion and the changes it wrought in American society. The course covers the creation of the United States industrial and transportation networks and the development of large-scale entrepreneurial capitalism. It also examines Americans' response to these phenomena, with particular emphasis on the adjustments they made to traditional social, political and economic attitudes. (Students who hold credit for HI484 need permission of the Department.)
HI685    1.0
Europe and the Overseas World, 1450-1700
This seminar studies European exploration, trade and colonization during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, and assesses the resultant interaction of African, Amerindian, Asian and European cultures by the examination of selected cases using primary historical sources. (Students who hold credit for HI485 need permission of the Department.)
HI686    1.0
Russian History
Studies in Russian and Soviet History with special emphasis on political and intellectual themes of the 19th and 20th centuries. (Students who hold credit for HI486 need permission of the Department.)
HI687    1.0
Comparative Revolutions
A comparative study of revolutions, giving attention primarily to the classic revolutions of Modern European History. Attention is given to problems in comparative history, particularly the problems in comparing societies caught up in revolutionary and pre-revolutionary conditions. (Students who hold credit for HI487 need permission of the Department.)
Cognate Essay
An essay, growing out of the work in one or more of the student's seminar courses, which completes the requirements in the second stream of study.
Directed Studies
Admission Requirements-PhD
All inquiries and applications concerning this program should be addressed to the Director, Tri-University Doctoral Program in History. All applications requesting financial support for the Fall Term must be received by the Tri-University Doctoral Program in History and be complete by February 1. Successful applicants will begin the PhD program in September. The Tri-University Doctoral Program uses a self-administered application process in which the onus is on the applicant to collect and submit all required documentation and material.
    Applications are considered by the Co-ordinating Committee and a recommendation for admission or rejection is forwarded to the Dean of Graduate Studies at the proposed home university. Only students who are graduates of accredited universities and colleges are eligible for admission. Students will be admitted only after they have obtained an MA in which they have received at least an A- standing. Since not all applicants can be admitted, close attention is paid to samples of applicants' written work, applicants' transcripts and past record as a whole, and to their statement of research interests.
    Applicants from outside Canada whose previous education cannot be assessed readily may be required to demonstrate their knowledge by other means such as the Graduate Record Examination. Non-Canadian applicants whose first language is other than French or English are required to submit evidence of proficiency in the English language or pass the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A net score of at least 600 is required.
    Applicants to the program indicate a preference for the University of Guelph, Wilfrid Laurier University or the University of Waterloo, depending on where their proposed thesis supervisor is located. Students in the program are governed by the general regulations of the university in which they are registered and their degree is granted by that university. Registration at one university for three degrees (BA, MA, PhD) is discouraged.

Program Requirements-PhD

Second Language
Students must demonstrate a reading knowledge of French (or other appropriate second language, approved by the Co-ordinating Committee). For details regarding second language credit and other regulations, students should consult the Tri-University Doctoral Program Handbook.
    The language exam will be offered every Fall and Winter Term and must be passed before the student is allowed to sit the Comprehensive Examination or the Colloquium. Students normally take the language exam by the conclusion of their second term/semester of registration. In the event of failure they must attempt the test every subsequent semester until it is passed or the student decides to withdraw from the program. Failure to comply with this requirement may involve termination of the program or denial of financial assistance.
    The same requirement will hold for students whose native language is French except that it will be applied to a reading knowledge of English.

Doctoral Seminar
Students are expected to attend the Doctoral Seminar each semester in which they are registered during the residency period. They are required to register for the Doctoral Seminar once, normally towards the end of their residency period. Fulfilment of the requirements of the Doctoral Seminar includes the presentation and defence of a scholarly conference paper.

PhD Fields
Each student is required to demonstrate competency in three fields (one major, two minor). The student's Advisory Committee, in collaboration with the student, will establish the fields to be examined and will select either the comprehensive or colloquium mode of examination.
    Of the three fields chosen by the student, one minor field must be in an area of study outside the major field. One of the minor fields may be in another discipline. The distinction between a major and a minor field is determined by the depth and range of reading rather than by its geographical or chronological span. There will be reading lists for the fields which will establish a basic core of readings but allow some flexibility as to overall content in any given year. Each student must receive a detailed written outline of each field requirement from the Field Supervisor at the beginning of their field preparation. A copy of the field requirements and any changes subsequently agreed thereto must be filed with the Tri-University Director. The minor and major fields are designed so that a student can complete the major in two terms and both minors in another two terms.
    As a partial fulfilment of their field preparations, students must take a seminar in each of their three fields. A student will take a seminar in every field for which he/she is responsible, even when these seminars contain only one student and amount to a reading course. Each field is larger than the seminar and the student is responsible for material beyond the seminar in order to satisfy the field requirements.
    The Program will offer field seminars annually in which faculty and graduate students from all three campuses will participate. In cases where students taking a minor field seminar seek a survey coverage of the field, those students will normally be in the same seminar as those taking the major field seminar.
    Upon completion of their fields, students proceed to either the Comprehensive Examinations or the Colloquium:
    The Comprehensive Mode requires the student to complete one historiographic essay for each field seminar, one written examination in each field and an Oral Qualifying Examination covering the three fields. In some cases, where additional preparation seems necessary, an additional essay may be required. The examination will be drawn up by the Supervisor of each field and will be approved by the Examining Committee approximately one week in advance of the examination. There will be a common exam for students in the same field at the same time. All three field examinations will normally be written within a two-week period by the start of the sixth semester. The examination answers will be marked by the Examining Committee who will award a mark in the Major Field (HI704), the First Minor Field (HI705) and the Second Minor Field (HI706). Following successful completion of the field examinations, the student will proceed, approximately two weeks later, to the Oral Qualifying Examination before the same committee. The committee will assign a mark for the Oral Qualifying Examination (HI701).
    The Colloquium Mode requires that students complete two essays to be written in each field. One of the essays will be the historiographical paper which is submitted as part of field seminar requirements. The mark for the field will be determined by the two papers, based on 40 percent for the historiographic paper and 60 percent for the second paper. Following the completion of field preparations, the student will present an independent research paper on a topic approved by their Advisory Committee, and will be examined intensively on that topic at an oral defence (HI702). For students in the colloquium mode the examination will occur in the first month of the seventh semester of the student's registration, except in cases where approval has been given by the Co-ordinating Committee.
    Failure to complete either Colloquium or Comprehensive Examinations within the stipulated time may lead to a suspension of funding support. The Examining Committee for the Colloquium and Comprehensive modes will normally be composed of the Thesis supervisor and the Field Supervisors, and will be chaired by the Director or designate; at least one of the committee members must be from another campus. Continuation in the program after the Oral Examination or Colloquium requires at least a B+ average, based on all courses taken in the program to that point.

PhD Thesis Requirements
Following successful completion of the colloquium or qualifying examination, the student must complete, under the supervision of a Tri-University Doctoral Program faculty member, an original research project on an advanced topic. Each candidate will be required to write a thesis of such originality and cogency that it would be publishable, in whole or in part, with minor revisions. The thesis should normally be between 50,000 and 90,000 words in length. The regulations and procedures at the university in which the student is enrolled will govern the thesis format and the thesis examination.

Decisions in the PhD Thesis Defence
Five decisions are open to the Examining Committee:

  • Accepted - Thesis may require typographical and/or minor editorial corrections to be made to the satisfaction of the Supervisor.
  • Accepted with modifications - Thesis requires minor changes in substance or major editorial changes which are to be made to the satisfaction of members of the Examining Committee designated by the Committee.  The Examining Committee's report must include a brief outline of the nature of the changes required and must indicate the time by which the changes should be completed.  Normally such changes should be completed within four weeks of the date of the examination.
  • Accepted conditionally - Thesis requires more substantive changes, but will be acceptable when these changes are made to the satisfaction of those members of the Examining Committee designated by the Committee.  The Examining Committee's report must include a brief outline of the nature of the changes required, and the date by which the changes are to be completed.
  • Decision deferred - Thesis requires modifications of a substantial nature, the need for which makes the acceptability of the thesis questionable.  The Examining Committee's report must contain a brief outline of the modifications expected and should indicate the time by which the changes are to be completed.  The revised thesis must be resubmitted for re-examination.  Normally, the re-examination will follow the same procedures as for the initial submission except that the display period may be reduced or eliminated at the discretion of the appropriate graduate dean.  Normally the same Examining Committee will serve.  A decision to defer is open only once for each candidate.
  • Rejected - Thesis is rejected.  The Examining Committee shall report the reasons for rejection.  A student whose Doctoral thesis has been rejected is required to withdraw from the PhD program.
  • If the Examining Committee is not prepared to reach a decision at the time of the thesis defence, it is the responsibility of the Chair to determine what additional information is required by the Committee to reach a decision, to arrange to obtain this information for the Committee, and to call another meeting of the Committee as soon as the required information is available.  It is also the responsibility of the Chair to inform the candidate about the delay.

    Graduate Courses-PhD

    HI700    0.5
    Doctoral Seminar
    This seminar is scheduled every semester to discuss research problems and issues of professional interest. Graded on a P (Pass)/F (Fail) basis.

    HI701    1.0
    Qualifying Examination
    This oral examination is designed to assess 1) the student's knowledge of the subject matter and ability to integrate the material in the major and minor fields, and 2) the student's ability and promise in research.
    HI702    1.0
    A public presentation of the student's research in the major field is assessed on the basis of 1) the student's knowledge of the subject matter and ability to integrate the material, and 2) the student's ability and promise in research.
    HI703    0.5
    Language Requirement
    A written demonstration of the student's reading knowledge of French (or other appropriate second language). Graded on a P (Pass) / F (Fail) basis.
    HI704    1.0
    Major Field
    HI705    0.5
    First Minor Field
    HI706    0.5
    Second Minor Field
    HI799    2.0
    PhD Thesis
    The following courses are designed to study the central issues, ideas and historiography of the designated major field.

    HI710    1.0
    Canadian History Major Seminar

    HI711    1.0
    British History Major Seminar
    HI712    1.0
    Scottish History Major Seminar
    HI713    1.0
    Community Studies Major Seminar
    HI714    1.0
    Early Modern European History Major Seminar
    HI715    1.0
    Modern European History Major Seminar
    HI716    1.0
    Gender, Women and Family Major Seminar
    HI717    1.0
    Race, Class, Imperialism and Slavery Major Seminar
    HI718    1.0
    United States History Major Seminar
    The following courses are designed to study the central issues, ideas and historiography of the designated minor field.

    HI760    .5
    Canadian History Minor Seminar

    HI761    0.5
    British History Minor Seminar
    HI762    0.5
    Scottish History Minor Seminar
    HI763    0.5
    Community Studies Minor Seminar
    HI764    0.5
    Early Modern European History Minor Seminar
    HI765    0.5
    Modern European History Minor Seminar
    HI766    0.5
    Gender, Women and Family Minor Seminar
    HI767    0.5
    Race, Class, Imperialism and Slavery Minor Seminar
    HI768    0.5
    United States History Minor Seminar
    HI769    0.5
    International History Minor Seminar
    HI770    0.5
    Science, Medicine and Technology Minor Seminar
    HI771    0.5
    Other Minor Seminar